The Open Art Network and ART Networks

 

 

The Pool is an online environment for collaboration, part of the Open Art Network. According to the Chronicle of Higher Education, The Pool will be an important new resource for new-media scholars, and could even play a role in tenure and promotion. The Pool features a thought-mesh system for discovering online scholarship and is launching a Code Pool. With more than 600 projects tracked, The Pool is one of the most active places for collaborative work. Its license-picker feature makes it easy to select the most appropriate terms for sharing projects.

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Adaptive resonance theory

ART stands for adaptive resonance theory. Developed by Stephen Grossberg and Gail Carpenter, ART describes the way neural networks learn to attend, recognize, and predict. This theory is one of the most comprehensive in its explanatory and predictive range. In art network training, a new input vector is accepted and classified using the previous stored pattern. At each node in the output layer, the input vector is compared to its classification and then the output becomes a “1”.

The brain specialization is governed by computationally complementary cortical processing streams with different predictive and learning mechanisms. For example, the What ventral cortical processing stream focuses on learning via match-based and excitatory matching. Match-based learning is an effective way to solve the stability-plasticity dilemma by allowing rapid and precise memory retrieval. The same principle applies to ART. Adaptive resonance theory in art network
Fuzzy ART

A multilayer fuzzy ART network is a common neural network architecture. However, unlike traditional neural networks, fuzzy ART does not support hierarchical features. As such, the learned features are spatially confined to the portion of the visual field sampled by each module. For example, a module that samples the bottom of the visual field will learn the optic flow patterns that are characteristic of ground flow. On the other hand, a module that samples the top of the visual field will learn distinct representations of flow in ceilings and trees.

The learned representations are stable and do not suffer catastrophic forgetting. Moreover, the learning process is largely observable. It does not require a separate training and prediction phase; it can continue even during operation. Fuzzy ART neural networks are particularly suitable for the learning of optical flow and other sensory patterns. This article focuses on the learning capabilities of this model. Further, it explains why the fuzzy ART network can be used in a range of vision applications.
ARTMAP

An ARTMAP is an artificial neural network, which learns by comparing an input vector to a stored pattern. The degree of similarity must be smaller than the vigilance parameter. This technique also prevents over-proliferation of categories. In this paper, we introduce a new version of the ARTMAP dedicated to classification tasks. We describe the architecture and algorithms of the new ARTMAP. It can be used for a variety of tasks, including recognizing human faces, detecting facial expressions, and more.

The basic ART system is an unsupervised learning model composed of two main layers: a comparison field and a recognition field. The comparison field transfers input to the best match in the recognition field, which is the neuron whose weight vector matches the input vector. The recognition field inhibits other neurons. Its output is a “1” when a classification is applied. There are two distinct types of ARTMAP: unsupervised and supervised.
Hypersphere ART

The Hypersphere ART network is a variant of Fuzzy-ART. It is based on the same principals as the Fuzzy-ART and inherits its unsupervised learning capabilities. The Hypersphere ARTMAP, however, is designed for supervised learning of multi-dimensional mappings. The two networks are closely related in many ways. This article will examine the differences between the two. This article will also describe how the Hypersphere ARTMAP differs from Fuzzy-ART.

In a supervised environment, the HSL enables the model to improve its performance. It does this by enforcing the spatial overlap between the input and predicted segmentations. Moreover, the HSL is scaled by a factor of 0.5 to balance the two loss functions. This scale was determined empirically during the validation phase. This algorithm improves the performance of supervised learning in hypersphere contexts. This paper also provides a detailed analysis of how hypersphere intuition performs better than softmax in Euclidean space.
ART1

An ART1 net architecture is a winner-take-all network that consists of a layer of linear prototype units. This architecture is identical to that of the simple competitive net shown in Figure 3.4.1. In the ART1 network, the linear prototype units are allocated dynamically in response to novel input vectors. They are connected through appropriate lateral-inhibitory and self-excitatory connections. The recognition field layer consists of two short-term memory stages, S1 and S2, which follow a signal.

The ART1 training procedure consists of taking a training example xk. Then, it examines existing prototypes, comparing them with xk. When there is a match, the prototype wi is added to its cluster. If it does not, it becomes a prototype in a new cluster. In this way, the ART1 network identifies the cluster that can best capture the pattern of the input.
ART2

ART2 is a generalization of the ART network and is based on the same general theory as the ART network. Specifically, ART2 networks compute norms by comparing the values of the input vector to those of the reference vector. Then, they find the largest signal that has similarity to the reference vector. In other words, ART2 networks can compare any two input vectors and find the best match.

This network combines artificial intelligence techniques with a neural network approach to analyze multispectral images. It uses an ART2 structure that can accept floating-point data and allow input to be gray level vectors for each band. Because of this, the algorithm is simplified. Experiments on JERS-1 images demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. Here, we’ll explain how it works and discuss how it compares to other approaches.
ART3

Adaptive robotic systems have been developed in recent years to recognize abstract prototypes of faces and dogs. They are also designed to recognize individual views of these types of objects, such as human faces. This process has been dubbed “match learning” and is a type of memory regulation that involves resonating with signals to refine previous knowledge. These systems are designed to function without the supervision of humans. This paper describes the basic principles and mechanisms of this technology.

The ART3 algorithm incorporates a search mechanism that performs four distinct functions: to correct erroneous category choices, to learn from changing input patterns, and to amplify features that are ignored. The search mechanism works by interpreting a non-stationary time series of input patterns, and responds to changes in these patterns. The search phase searches for this stored pattern, and the comparison phase searches for matches.
ART5

The ART5 model is based on an unsupervised learning model that consists of a comparison field, recognition field, vigilance parameter, and a reset module. The comparison field transfers input to the best match in the recognition field, which is a neuron whose weight vector matches that of the input. The recognition field neurons inhibit the output of other neurons. These parameters help the ART5 model achieve high performance and accuracy.

The ART network was developed by Stephen Grossberg and Gail Carpenter in 1987. This model uses a competition model and is open to new learning, while maintaining the same resonance between previously learned clusters. Each neuron in the output layer compares an input vector to a classification and then produces a ‘1’ if it matches the classification. After all this processing, the network output is called the ”reset”.
ART6

The ART6 neural network is a part of the broader Art network. ART networks are highly efficient models for incremental learning and prediction. They use a match-based learning scheme that complements error-based learning. These models can automatically adapt previously-learned categories and create new ones dynamically in response to new inputs. However, these networks are not suitable for all classical machine-learning applications. Here are some of their key features.